2. Dezember 2020
The region has traditionally been an exchange economy with the main cattle currency for millennia.  Cattle theft between different ethnic groups was an accepted and honourable opportunity to purchase more livestock.  However, there were widely accepted limits to the amount of violence permitted in the event of cattle attacks, and tribal elders would intervene if violence was uncontrollable in the event of uncontrollable.  Moreover, obsolete weapons used in livestock attacks were not likely to cause mass casualties.  During Sudan`s Second War of Independence, the Khartoum government adopted a deliberate policy of „division and domination“ from 1984, arming young men armed with assault rifles and ammunition, encouraged to use unlimited force against cattle attacks, in the hope that the resulting ethnic violence would cause such discord that it would end the rebellion.  Khartoum`s policy of „division and domination“ did not bring an end to the rebellion, but it did lead to the collapse of accepted norms of violence in livestock attacks and to an increase in ethnic tensions among the peoples of South Sudan, leaving a legacy of mistrust and bitterness that still persists today.  In 2010, Dennis Blair, then Director of the U.S. Secret Service, warned that „in the next five years,… A new massacre or genocide is most likely in South Sudan.  In 2011, fighting broke out between the Murle and the Lou Nuer, mainly to attack cattle and kidnap children to educate them as their own.
The Nuer White Army issued a statement declaring its intention „to wipe out the entire Murle strain on the face of the Earth as the only solution to ensure the long-term safety of Nuer`s cattle.“  During the Pibor massacre, an estimated 900 to 3,000 people were killed in Pibor. Although Machar and Kiir are both members of the SPLM, they come from different tribes with a history of conflict. Kiir is an ethnic dinka, while Machar is an ethnic nuer.   The representative of the United States welcomed Ms. Rambang`s briefing, in which she called for greater participation of women in all areas of the peace process. With regard to the two-year anniversary of the signing of the renewed peace agreement, he said that his country fully recognized the efforts made to achieve important benchmarks. „It is time for the leaders of South Sudan to redouble their efforts to implement the peace agreement,“ he said, calling on the transitional government to work towards stability for its people, who have yet to see tangible benefits.